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The composition structure and working principle of belt conveyor are introduced

Source: Site popularity: 18251 Published time: 2020-02-18 11:43:21

Belt conveyor is a type of transport mechanism that uses flexible conveyor belts as material bearing parts and traction parts to transport materials。It uses the root to close the ring conveyor belt as a traction and bearing member, bypassing and tensioning it on the front and back two rollers, relying on the friction between the conveyor belt and the driving roller to produce continuous movement of the conveyor belt, relying on the friction between the conveyor belt and the material to make the material run with the conveyor belt, so as to complete the task of conveying materials。The main components are tensioning drum, tensioning device, charging funnel, reversing drum, supporting roller, closed ring belt, unloading device, driving drum and driving device, etc。

Working hours,Under the action of the transmission mechanism,Drive the drum to rotate clockwise,The ring conveyor belt is moved forward by the action of friction between the outer surface of the driving drum and the inner surface of the ring belt,When the startup is normal,Load the material to be transported from the loading funnel onto the circular conveyor belt,And forward transport with the belt to the working position。When the conveying direction needs to be changed, the unloading device will be unloaded to the conveyor belt in the other direction to continue conveying. If the conveying direction does not need to be changed, there is no need to use the unloading device, and the material will be discharged directly from the right end of the ring conveyor belt。

The main components of the belt conveyor are traction parts, conveyor belts, driving devices, tensioning devices, frames and rollers, cleaners, loading and unloading devices。

1, in the belt conveyor, the conveyor belt is both a bearing part and a traction part, it is mainly used to carry materials and transfer traction。It is a high cost (about 40% of the cost of the conveyor) and easy to wear parts in the belt conveyor。Therefore, the selected conveyor belt requires high strength, small elongation, good flexibility, light weight, low water absorption, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and must also meet the requirements of food hygiene。

2, commonly used conveyor belt: rubber belt, various fiber braided belt, plastic belt, nylon belt, strong nylon belt, plate belt, steel belt and steel wire mesh belt, etc., which is used more common rubber belt。Various conveyor belt varieties and specifications can be consulted in the mechanical design manual。

3. The driving device is generally composed of one or several driving rollers, reducers, couplings, etc。The driving drum is the main component of transmitting power. Except for the plate belt driving drum with teeth on the surface, the driving drum of other conveyor belts is usually a hollow drum with large diameter and smooth surface。The roller is usually made of steel plate welded to the surface, and in order to increase the friction of the roller and the belt, the surface is sometimes covered with wood, leather, or rubber。The width of the drum is 100-200mm than the transmission bandwidth, and it is a drum structure, that is, the central diameter is slightly larger, which is used to automatically correct the deviation of the conveyor belt。

4, in the belt conveyor, because the conveyor belt has a certain elongation, under the action of tension, the length of itself will increase。This increased length needs to be compensated for, otherwise the belt will not be in close contact with the driving drum and will slip, making the conveyor belt unable to operate normally。The role of the tensioning device is to ensure that the conveyor belt has sufficient tension in order to generate the necessary friction between the conveyor belt and the driving roller to ensure the normal operation of the conveyor。Commonly used tensioning devices are weight type and screw type。For conveyors with short conveying distances, the tensioning device can be installed directly on the supporting shaft of the driven roller of the conveyor belt, while for longer conveyors, a special tensioning roll is required。

5, belt conveyor frame multi-channel steel, Angle steel and steel plate welding。The frame of the movable conveyor is mounted on rollers for movement。The roller supports the conveyor belt and the materials on it in the conveyor, making the conveyor belt run smoothly。The plate belt does not use rollers because it is supported by the guide plate under the plate。The roller should be as far as possible to achieve small motion resistance coefficient, small power consumption, simple structure, easy disassembly and maintenance, high strength and wear resistance and good sealing performance。

6, the cleaner is used to clean the food materials attached to the conveyor belt。Most food materials are adhesive, so it is necessary to install a reliable cleaner。It is divided into two kinds: spring cleaner and scraper cleaner: spring cleaner is installed at the head roller to clean the materials attached to the bearing surface of the conveyor belt after unloading;The scraper cleaner is installed in front of the tail roller to clean the material on the conveyor belt running surface。

7, the loading device is also known as the feeder, its role is to ensure the uniform supply of conveyor quantitative materials, so that the material is evenly distributed on the conveyor belt, usually using the hopper for loading。The discharge device is located at the end drum。In the middle discharge, the "plow type" discharge device is used, which is simple in structure and low in cost, but it has serious wear on the conveyor belt。

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